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1 81 Allen, E. R. 1952. The gopher tortoise and the value of toads. Reprint from All-Pets Magazine, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 3pp.
2 89 Allen, E. R., and M. P. Merryday. 1940. A snake in the hand—is worth two in the grass for medical research, and the job of capturing and keeping them sheds interesting sidelights on their habits and peculiarities. Natural History 46:234–239.
3 102 Allen, E. R., and W. T. Neill. 1951. The gopher. Florida Wildlife 5(7):10, 32.
4 165 Alvarez, K. 1998. Gopher tortoises and El Nino. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Park Service, Resource Management Notes 10(1):7–8.
5 326 Anonymous. 1983. Flooding of gopher tortoise burrows may be beneficial. Tortoise Burrow, Bulletin of the Gopher Tortoise Council 3(7):2.
6 7316 Ashton, R. E., and P. S. Ashton. 2002. Gopher tortoise management in yards, small ranches, farms & mitigation parks. Gopher Tortoise Conservation Initiative, Ashton Biodiversity Research & Preservation Institute, Newberry, Florida, USA. 14pp.
7 9045 Ashton, R. E., and P. S. Ashton. 2008. The natural history and management of the gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus (Daudin). Krieger, Malabar, Florida, USA. 275pp.
8 615 Ashton, R. E., Jr., and K. J. Ashton. 1991. Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise). Drinking behavior. Herpetological Review 22:55–56.
9 617 Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 2001. Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise). Use of abandoned burrows by juveniles. Herpetological Review 32:185–186.
10 6946 Ashton, R. E., Jr., and P. S. Ashton. 2004. The gopher tortoise: a life history. Pineapple Press, Sarasota, Florida, USA. 72pp.
11 9332 Ashton, R. E., Jr., P. S. Ashton, and E. von Muggenthaler. 2005. First findings of low frequency sound communication in tortoises. Page 6 (abstract) in 27th Annual Gopher Tortoise Council Meeting, 7−9 October 2005, Palatka, Florida, USA.
12 649 Auffenberg, W. 1966. On the courtship of Gopherus polyphemus. Herpetologica 22:113–117.
13 653 Auffenberg, W. 1969. Tortoise behavior and survival. The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Patterns of Life Series, Rand McNally, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 38pp.
14 662 Auffenberg, W. 1986. Shelter use in gopher tortoises. Gainesville Herpetological Society Newsletter 2(3):10–14.
15 667 Auffenberg, W., and J. B. Iverson. 1979. Demography of terrestrial turtles. Pages 541–569 in M. Harless and H. Morlock, editors. Turtles: perspectives and research. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, USA.
16 767 Bard, A. M. 1989. Resident and relocated tortoises: a comparative study in central Florida, 1985–1989. M.S. Thesis, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA. 42pp.
17 836 Bartlett, R. D. 1995. A stroll on the Lake Wales Ridge. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 43(8):110, 112, 114, 116–118, 120, 126, 128, 131.
18 840 Bartlett, R. D. 1997. Notes from the field. Florida to Florida (with many stops between): part one. Reptiles Magazine 5(3):86–91.
19 862 Bartram, W. 1791. Travels through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida, the Cherokee country, the extensive territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the country of the Chactaws; containing, an account of the soil and natural productions of those regions, together with observations on the manners of the Indians. James & Johnson, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 522pp. Bartram, W. 1947. The travels of William Bartram [edited by Mark van Doren]. Dover, New York, New York, USA. 414pp.
20 890 Belinky, G. K. 1970. Robustus. International Turtle & Tortoise Society Journal 4(5):27–29.
21 1035 Blatchley, W. S. 1902. A nature wooing at Ormond by the Sea. Nature Publishing Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. 245pp.
22 1036 Blatchley, W. S. 1931. My nature nook or notes on the natural history of the vicinity of Dunedin, Florida. Nature Publishing Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. 302pp.
23 1063 Bogert, C. M., and R. B. Cowles. 1947. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 58. Moisture loss in relation to habitat selection in some Florida reptiles. American Museum Novitates No. 1358. 34pp.
24 1118 Braddock, J. E. 1962. A gopher named "Tuffy." Florida Naturalist 35:46.
25 1226 Burke, R. L. 1987. An experimental relocation and reintroduction of a gopher tortoise population. M.S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 49pp.
26 1227 Burke, R. L. 1989. Effects of social structure on success of a gopher tortoise relocation in Palm Beach County, Florida. Page 83 in J. E. Diemer, D. R. Jackson, J. L. Landers, J. N. Layne, and D. A. Wood, editors. Proceedings of the gopher tortoise relocation symposium. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Nongame Wildlife Program Technical Report No. 5, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.
27 1228 Burke, R. L. 1989. Florida gopher tortoise relocation: overview and case study. Biological Conservation 48:295–309.
28 1267 Butler, J. A., and T. W. Hull. 1992. A radio telemetry study of hatchling gopher tortoises. Page 39 (abstract) in Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, August 1992, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA.
29 1268 Butler, J. A., and T. W. Hull. 1996. Reproduction of the tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, in northeastern Florida. Journal of Herpetology 30:14–18.
30 1266 Butler, J. A., R. D. Bowman, T. W. Hull, and S. Sowell. 1995. Movements and home range of hatchling gopher tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 1:173–180.
31 1288 Cabbage, H. 1986. A short winter's nap. Florida Wildlife 40(5):39–41.
32 1383 Carr, A. 1994. Florida vignettes. Pages 91–99 in M. H. Carr, editor. A naturalist in Florida: a celebration of Eden. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, Connecticut, USA.
33 10458 Castellón, T. D., B. B. Rothermel, and J. M. Bauder. 2018. Gopher tortoise burrow use, home range, seasonality, and habitat fidelity in scrub and mesic Ffatwoods of southern Florida. Herpetologica 74:8−21.
34 9869 Castellón, T. D., B. B. Rothermel, and S. Z. Nomani. 2012. Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) burrow densities in scrub and flatwoods habitats of peninsular Florida. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11:153–161.
35 1575 Conant, R. 1930. Field notes of a collecting trip. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 4(3):60–64, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
36 1587 Connor, K. M. 1996. Homing behavior and orientation in the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. M.S. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. 39pp.
37 10826 Cozad, R. A., T. M. Norton, M. J. Aresco, T. D. Tuberville, and S. M. Hernandez. 2019. Health and density effects on overwintering behavior of translocated gopher tortoises in Northwest Florida. Abstract in SE PARC 2019 Oral Presentation Abstracts, 14–17 February 2019, Black Mountain, North Carolina, USA.
38 1825 Diemer, J. E. 1989. Management of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in Florida. Special session on the management of rare or endangered species. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association Fish and Wildlife Agencies 43:3 (abstract).
39 1830 Diemer, J. E. 1992. Home range and movements of the tortoise Gopherus polyphemus in northern Florida. Journal of Herpetology 26:158–165.
40 2066 Doonan, T. J., and D. M. Epperson. 2001. Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) populations on Naval Air Station Cecil Field, Florida: structure, prevalence of upper respiratory tract disease, and activity patterns. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Final Performance Report, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. 50pp.
41 2067 Doonan, T. J., and I. J. Stout. 1986. Demography of an isolated population of gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. Florida Scientist 49(Supplement 1):38 (abstract).
42 2069 Doonan, T. J., and I. J. Stout. 1994. Effects of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) body size on burrow structure. American Midland Naturalist 131:273–280.
43 2076 Douglass, J. 1990. Patterns of mate-seeking and aggression in a south Florida population of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. Proceedings of the 1986 Symposium of the Desert Tortoise Council 11:155–199.
44 2078 Douglass, J. F. 1976. Patterns of mate-seeking and burrow use in a southern Florida population of Gopherus polyphemus. Herpetological Review 7:80 (abstract).
45 2079 Douglass, J. F. 1976. The mating system of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, in southern Florida. M.A. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. 79pp.
46 2080 Douglass, J. F. 1977. Abnormalities of scutellation in a population of Gopherus polyphemus (Reptilia, Testudinidae). Florida Scientist 40:256–258.
47 2081 Douglass, J. F. 1978. Refugia of juvenile gopher tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus (Reptilia, Testudines, Testudinidae). Journal of Herpetology 12:413–415.
48 2083 Douglass, J. F., and C. E. Winegarner. 1977. Predators of eggs and young of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus (Reptilia, Testudines, Testudinidae) in southern Florida. Journal of Herpetology 11:236–238.
49 2082 Douglass, J. F., and J. N. Layne. 1978. Activity and thermoregulation of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in southern Florida. Herpetologica 34:359–374.
50 8972 Engeman, R. M., B. U. Constantin, M. L. Christie, and P. T. Hall. 2009. Ctenosaura similis (black spiny-tailed iguana). Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise) concurrent burrow use. Herpetological Review 40:84.
51 2276 Epperson, D. M. 1997. Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) populations: activity patterns, upper respiratory tract disease, and management on a military reservation in northeastern Florida. M.S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 62pp.
52 2360 Fisher, G. C. 1917. "Gopher pulling" in Florida. American Museum Journal 17:291–293.
53 2449 Forbes, J. G. 1964. Sketches, historical and topographical, of the Floridas; more particularly of East Florida. [A facsimile reproduction of the 1821 edition.] University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 226pp.
54 2539 Fuller, J. [as told to B. East]. 1972. Don't break your tushes on me, snake. Outdoor Life 149(4):88–91, 104, 106, 108.
55 2711 Gore, R. H. 1992. The Gulf of Mexico: a treasury of resources in the American Mediterranean. Pineapple Press, Inc., Sarasota, Florida, USA. 384pp.
56 2815 Hailman, J. P., J. N. Layne, and R. Knapp. 1991. Notes on aggressive behavior of the gopher tortoise. Herpetological Review 22:87–88.
57 2826 Hallinan, T. 1923. Observations made in Duval County, northern Florida, on the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Copeia 1923:11–20.
58 2829 Hamilton, A. M. 1998. Ecology and habitat use of juvenile box turtles at Egmont Key, Florida. Abstract in Proceedings of the 78th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 41st Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 46th Annual Meeting of the Herpetologists' League, 14th Annual Meeting of the American Elasmobranch Society, and the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Herpetologists, 16–22 July 1998, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
59 2831 Hamilton, A. M. 1999. Seasonal and daily activity and movement patterns of juvenile box turtles at Egmont Key, Florida. Page 120 (abstract) in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the 79th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 15th Annual Meeting of the American Elasmobranch Society, 47th Annual Meeting of the Herpetologists' League, and the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 24–30 June 1999, Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, USA.
60 2847 Hansen, K. L. 1964. The burrow of the gopher tortoise. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 26:353–360.
61 2862 Harcourt, H. 1889. Home life in Florida. John P. Morton and Company, Louisville, Kentucky, USA. 433pp.
62 9081 Hayes, F. P., and J. P. Hayes. 2009. Temporal patterns of use of burrows by gopher tortoises. Abstract in 31st Annual Gopher Tortoise Council Meeting, 2–3 October 2009, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
63 3021 Hicklin, J. R. 1994. The effects of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) on gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) habitat utilization. M.S. Thesis, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 41pp.
64 3095 Hollister, J. M. 1951. Turtles found in Florida. Florida Naturalist 24:93–95.
65 3148 Hubbard, H. G. 1893. The Florida land tortoise-gopher, Gopherus polyphemus. Science 22:57–58.
66 3180 Hutt, A. 1967. The gopher tortoise, a versatile vegetarian. Florida Wildlife 21(7):20–24.
67 3253 Jackson, D. R. 1985. The perfect host. ENFO (Florida Conservation Foundation) 85(1):8–10.
68 3391 Johnston, G. 1996. Thermal ecology of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus: an ontogenetic comparison. Abstract in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the 76th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists and 44th Annual Meeting of the Herpetologist's League, 13–19 June 1996, Hotel Inter-Continental, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
69 3392 Johnston, G. 1997. Seasonal aspects of gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus thermal ecology. Abstract in Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the 77th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 45th Annual Meeting of the Herpetologists' League, and 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 26 June–2 July 1997, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
70 6880 Johnston, G. R. 1996. Thermal ecology of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in south-central Florida. Dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA. 102pp.
71 3411 Jones, W. A. 1996. Tracking gopher tortoises at Ichetucknee Springs State Park. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Resource Management Notes 8(1):2
72 3425 Kalisz, P. J., and E. L. Stone. 1984. Soil mixing by scarab beetles and pocket gophers in north-central Florida. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48:169–172.
73 3504 Kinlaw, A. 1999. A review of burrowing by semi-fossorial vertebrates in arid environments. Journal of Arid Environments 41:127–145.
74 8312 Kinlaw, A. E., L. B. Conyers, and W. Zajac. 2007. Use of ground penetrating radar to image burrows of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Herpetological Review 38:50–-56.
75 3539 Knight, C. F. 1871. Remarks on the Florida turtles. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 14:16–18.
76 3621 Kwiatkowski, P. A., and K. Connor. 1995. Physiology, genetics, and behavior of Gopherus polyphemus. Publicaciones de la Sociedad Herpetólogica Mexicana 2:41–44.
77 9879 Lau, A. Y. K. 2011. Spatial ecology of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in coastal sand dune habitat : burrow site selection, home range and seasonal activity patterns. M.S. Thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 94pp.
78 3791 Linley, P. A. 1991. Tales of a backyard gopher. Tortoise Burrow, Bulletin of The Gopher Tortoise Council 11(3):9.
79 3794 Linley, T. R. 1988. Tortoise density, age/size class distribution and reproductive parameters of a central Florida population of Gopherus polyphemus. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of the Gopher Tortoise Council 5:21–32.
80 3808 Loennberg, E. 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 17:317–339.
81 3945 Martin, P., and J. N. Layne. 1987. Relationship of gopher tortoise body size to burrow size in a southcentral Florida population. Florida Scientist 50:264–267.
82 4039 McCoy, E. D., H. R. Mushinsky, and D. S. Wilson. 1993. Pattern in the compass orientation of gopher tortoise burrows at different spatial scales. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 3(2):33–40.
83 4123 Means, D. B. 1981. Winter burrow flooding and behavior of the gopher tortoise. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Gopher Tortoise Council 2:74 (abstract).
84 4125 Means, D. B. 1982. Responses to winter burrow flooding of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus Daudin). Herpetologica 38:521–525.
85 4284 Meylan, P. A. 1982. The squamate reptiles of the Inglis IA fauna (Irvingtonian: Citrus County, Florida). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 27(3):1–85.
86 7718 Moon, J. C., E. D. McCoy, H. R. Mushinsky, and S. A. Karl. 2006. Multiple paternity and breeding system in the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus. Journal of Heredity 97:150–157.
87 4682 Nicol, E. 1984. Communal life of the gopher. Tortoise Burrow, Bulletin of the Gopher Tortoise Council 4(12):4–5.
88 7281 Pike, D. A., A. Dinsmore, T. Crabill, R. B. Smith, and R. A. Seigel. 2005. Short-term effects of handling and permanently marking gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) on recapture rates and behavior. Applied Herpetology 2:139–147.
89 7808 Pike, D. A., and A. Grosse. 2006. Daily activity of immature gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) with notes on commensal species. Florida Scientist 69:92–98.
90 9337 Pike, D. A., and R. A. Seigel. 2005. Hidden mysteries: ecology and natural history of immature gopher tortoises. Page 18 (abstract) in 27th Annual Gopher Tortoise Council Meeting, 7−9 October 2005, Palatka, Florida, USA.
91 7248 Pike, D. A., and R. L. Antworth. 2005. Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise). Juvenile burrow cohabitation. Herpetological Review 36:58.
92 10460 Rautsaw, R. M., S. A. Martin, B. A. Vincent, K. Lanctot, M. R. Bolt, R. A. Seigel, and C. L. Parkinson. 2018. Stopped dead in their tracks: the impact of railways on gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) movement and behavior. Copeia 2018:135−143.
93 5176 Roosevelt, T. 1917. Notes on Florida turtles. American Museum Journal 17:288–291.
94 5540 Speake, D. W., and J. A. McGlincy. 1981. Response of indigo snakes to gassing their dens. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 35:135–138.
95 5541 Speake, D. W., and R. H. Mount. 1973. Some possible ecological effects of "rattlesnake roundups" in the southeastern coastal plain. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Game and Fish Commissioners 27:267–277.
96 5546 Spillan, T. 1982. Patrick's project. Florida Wildlife 35(6):32–35.
97 5647 Stewart, M. C. 1991. Habitat structure and the dispersion of gopher tortoises on a nature preserve. M.S. Thesis, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 38pp.
98 5648 Stewart, M. C., D. F. Austin, and G. R. Bourne. 1993. Habitat structure and the dispersion of gopher tortoises on a nature preserve. Florida Scientist 56:70–81.
99 5674 Stout, I. J., D. R. Richardson, and R. E. Roberts. 1989. Response of resident and relocated gopher tortoises to a prescribed burn in a sand pine scrub community. Pages 84–85 in J. E. Diemer, D. R. Jackson, J. L. Landers, J. N. Layne, and D. A. Wood, editors. Proceedings of the gopher tortoise relocation symposium. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Nongame Wildlife Program Technical Report No. 5, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.
100 5936 Ultsch, G. R., and J. F. Anderson. 1986. The respiratory microenvironment within the burrow of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). Copeia 1986:787–795.
101 7258 Waddle, J. H. 2000. The effect of habitat on the distribution and mating opportunities of female gopher tortoises, Gopherus polyphemus. M.S. Thesis, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA. ?pp.
102 6005 Wallace, D. R. 1988. Bulow Hammock: mind in a forest. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, California, USA. 170pp.
103 9026 Weber, W. J. 2009. Henrietta. Florida Wildlife 62(2):42–43.
104 9253 Wendland, L. D., J. Wooding, C. L. White, D. Demcovitz, R. Littell, J. Diemer Berish, A. Ozugul, M. K. Oli, P. A. Klein, M. C. Christman, and M. B. Brown. 2010. Social behavior drives the dynamics of respiratory disease in threatened tortoises. Ecology 91:1257–1262.
105 6168 Wilson, D. S. 1989. Burrow usage, activity patterns, and home range size of juvenile gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in south Florida. Abstract in Abstracts of the First World Congress of Herpetology, 11–19 September 1989, University of Kent at Canterbury, United Kingdom.
106 6171 Wilson, D. S. 1990. Home range, activity, and burrow use of juvenile gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in a central Florida population. M.S. Thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA. 43pp.
107 6180 Wilson, D. S., H. R. Mushinsky, and E. D. McCoy. 1991. Gopher tortoise burrow width to body size relations. Florida Scientist 54(Supplement 1):15–16 (abstract).
108 6181 Wilson, D. S., H. R. Mushinsky, and E. D. McCoy. 1991. Relationship between gopher tortoise body size and burrow width. Herpetological Review 22:122–124.
109 6182 Wilson, D. S., H. R. Mushinsky, and E. D. McCoy. 1994. Home range, activity, and use of burrows of juvenile gopher tortoises in central Florida. Pages 147–160 in R. B. Bury and D. J. Germano, editors. Biology of North American tortoises. Fish and Wildlife Research 13, U.S.D.I. National Biological Survey, Washington, D.C.

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